spring security 简单入门

2019-11-17 来源: 程序晓猿 发布在  https://www.cnblogs.com/chengxuxiaoyuan/p/11875969.html

spring security 简单入门示例

一、概述

Spring Security是一个能够为基于Spring的企业应用系统提供声明式的安全访问控制解决方案的安全框架 。

其中最主要的安全操作有两个。

认证:是为用户建立一个他所声明的主体 ,就是完成用户的登录

授权:指的是一个用户能否在应用中执行某个操作。在进行授权之前已经完成了用户的认证。

二、快速入门案例

1.新建一个java web工程

使用idea+maven创建一个java web工程,目录如下

并创建好登录的页面,登录失败的页面,和登录成功的页面,login.html,success.html,failed.html,还有工程的首页index.jsp

2.导入依赖

pom文件的内容如下

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>com.lyy</groupId>
  <artifactId>web_03_security_quicklystart</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>war</packaging>

  <name>web_03_security_quicklystart Maven Webapp</name>
  <!-- FIXME change it to the project's website -->
  <url>http://www.example.com</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    <spring.version>5.0.2.RELEASE</spring.version>
    <spring.security.version>5.0.1.RELEASE</spring.security.version>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-context-support</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-jdbc</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-security-web</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.security.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-security-config</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.security.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
      <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
      <version>3.1.0</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

  <build>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.tomcat.maven</groupId>
          <artifactId>tomcat7-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>2.1</version>
              <configuration>
                <port>80</port>
                <path>/</path>
                <uriEncoding>UTF-8</uriEncoding>
                <server>tomcat7</server>
              </configuration>
      </plugin>

    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

3.创建spring security的配置文件

spring-security.xml的内容如下

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:security="http://www.springframework.org/schema/security"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
          http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
          http://www.springframework.org/schema/security
          http://www.springframework.org/schema/security/spring-security.xsd">

    <!--spring-security的入门配置-->

    <!--配置哪些资源不会被拦截 /xxx表示根路径下的某个资源-->
    <security:http security="none" pattern="/login.html"/>
    <security:http security="none" pattern="/failed.html"/>

    <security:http auto-config="true" use-expressions="false">
        <!-- 配置链接地址,表示任意路径都需要ROLE_USER权限 -->
        <security:intercept-url pattern="/**" access="ROLE_USER"/>

        <!--自定义登录页面-->
        <security:form-login login-page="/login.html" login-processing-url="/login"
                             username-parameter="username" password-parameter="password"
                             authentication-failure-forward-url="/failed.html"
                             default-target-url="/success.html" authentication-success-forward-url="/success.html"

        />
        <!--关闭csrf,默认是开启的-->
        <security:csrf disabled="true"/>
    </security:http>
    <security:authentication-manager>
        <security:authentication-provider>
            <!--这里配置了两个用户,分别具有USER和ADMIN的权限-->
            <security:user-service>
                <security:user name="user" password="{noop}user"
                               authorities="ROLE_USER"/>
                <security:user name="admin" password="{noop}admin"
                               authorities="ROLE_ADMIN"/>
            </security:user-service>
        </security:authentication-provider>
    </security:authentication-manager>
</beans>

这个配置文件中的主要内容如下:

(1) 配置security不进行权限控制的资源,如登录和失败页面

<!--配置哪些资源不会被拦截 /xxx表示根路径下的某个资源-->
<security:http security="none" pattern="/login.html"/>
<security:http security="none" pattern="/failed.html"/>

(2) 配置任意路径都需要ROLE_USER权限

(3) 配置使用自定义的登录页面

(4) 配置两个用户,分别具有USER和ADMIN的权限

注意配置路径的访问权限时必须带上ROLE_前缀

4. 在web.xml中配置spring security的过滤器

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
                      http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
         version="3.0">
  <display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>

  <context-param>
    <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
    <param-value>classpath:spring-security.xml</param-value>
  </context-param>
  <listener>
    <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
  </listener>
  <filter>
    <filter-name>springSecurityFilterChain</filter-name>
    <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>springSecurityFilterChain</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
  <welcome-file-list>
    <welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>
    <welcome-file>index.htm</welcome-file>
    <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>
    <welcome-file>default.html</welcome-file>
    <welcome-file>default.htm</welcome-file>
    <welcome-file>default.jsp</welcome-file>
  </welcome-file-list>
</web-app>

注意springSecurityFilterChain这个过滤器的名称不能更改

5.启动工程

启动工程,输入localhost进行访问,会出现如下的登录页面

使用user:user和admin:admin这两个账户都可以完成登录,登录成功后会跳转到登录成功页面

需要注意的是:

配置文件中配置的是所有资源都要ROLE_USER权限才能访问,所以如果使用user登录成功后,可以访问到工程中的其他资源,比如首页;但使用admin登录后,因为只有ROLE_ADMIN权限,所以不能访问工程中的其他资源

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